Gostev G.A. Problems of operation and non-destructive testing of rails with reduced wear. Modern technologies. System analysis. Modeling, 2018, Vol. 57, No. 1, pp. 90-94. DOI: 10.26731 / 1813-9108.2018.1 (57). 90-94.
The article determines the necessity of nondestructive testing of rails for the presence of internal defects. It indicates the research directions of the last decades with the identification of factors influencing the control results. The author presents statistics of detection of highly defective and defective rails and considers the most common reason for their emergence. A measure is specified to prevent the appearance of defects for the reason considered. The paper demonstrates the statistics of the rail breaks and the missing defects in nondestructive testing. It considers the factors that caused the omission of defects are indicated and the measures taken to control them. The task of the center for deciphering the control results is to prevent defects from being omitted and to control the operation of operators of flaw detectors. This is due to the fact that distances often distort the true state of the defective rails. The technical impossibility of detecting a defect requires separate consideration. The author determines types of defects that cannot be detected. It is noted that there are untestable rails and "noisy" ones. In this regard, it is stated that the existing non-destructive testing tools need improvement in terms of developing the sounding schemes, the design of the search systems, and the revision of control technology. The article indicates what kind of modernization works are already being carried out on the means of nondestructive testing. It presents the analysis of applied methods of nondestructive testing is given, together with their operating principle. The necessary condition for the implementation of the mirror-shadow method of ultrasonic testing is the parallelism of the input surface and the bottom surface. It is shown that when an inclination angle appears between the input surface and the bottom surface, a false alarm indicates a defect. The problem is determined at which angle of inclination of the rolling surface to the surface of the sole of the rail a stable signal from the bottom surface will be observed.
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