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This article is concerned with system analysis of a blockchain technology and its applicability in the modern environment. The main attention is paid to problems which face the distributed blockchain technology. Technology application areas are shown in this article. Mathematical models and algorithms for implementation of components blockchain are considered. System analysis
of contradictions of blockchain technology is carried out, with a brief analysis of the internal logic (an encoding and a consensus). This work shows perspectives of development of blockchain services on the basis of the "smart contract" concept which allows making transactions between participants in an automatic mode that makes it possible to create decentralized, independent organizational units. These units are guided by own laws and work almost independently, implementing decentralized applications. The decentralized applications are more flexible, more transparent and safer than the modern software created using traditional models. It is shown that using properties of peer-to-peer (P2P) networks with equality of all participants, blockchain technologies allow implementing the transaction directly with any participant of this network. It creates a processing kernel of the "decentralized independent organizations" which should be considered as the organization of a new type, similar to a digital company. Blockchain-based decisions form safe and naturally decentralized frame for transaction processing. The primary benefit of the blockchain, in comparison with other models of databases, is the implementation of control using the algorithmically uniform protocol. In conclusion, the recommendations for using the technology to maintain the unified data register in the conditions of the synchronous technologies of data handling and control are made.

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