Development of the model of transverse forces in the ballast layer under the influence of external loads

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Galai E. I., Rudov P. К., Galai E. E. Issledovanie tormoznykh protsessov v gruzovikh poezdakh s elektrovozami BKG1 i VL80C na Belorusskoi zheleznoi doroge [The study of braking processes in freight trains with electric locomotives BKG1 and Vl80S on the Belarusian railways]. Sovremennye tekhnologii. Sistemnyi analiz. Modelirovanie [Modern Technologies. System Analysis. Modeling], 2020, No. 4 (68), pp. 220–230. – DOI: 10.26731/1813-9108.2020.4(68).220-230

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Understanding the nature of the occurrence of transverse forces depending on the operating conditions is a priority issue, since the stability and uninterrupted operation of the railway track largely depends on the ability of the rail grid to maintain a stable position with the help of the ballast. The modern technical requirements for the ballast layer are insufficient, as they are not able to ensure the quality of the ballast material throughout its entire service life. This is confirmed by recent research papers from various regions. The authors analyzed the situation at the Sverdlovsk test site. The analysis of the ballast layer geological study results have shown that there is practically no required fraction of ballast. The concept of the average fraction of ballast material has been introduced to describe the actual granulometric composition. There have been determined the values of these for the track that is in the run-up to major repairs.A laboratory stand was developed to study the behavior of the ballast prism under external loads, considering the actual granulometric state of the ballast. The series of tests were conducted, which were a total of more than four hundred experiments. A model of ballast behavior in the elementary section was developed, which was based on the obtained empirical dependences of transverse forces on external loads.Based on the results of full-scale modeling,  highly reliable computer models of the ballast material and the laboratory stand were prepared, considering the characteristics of the laboratory model. Loadings were performed in an extended range of external forces. According to the simulation results, the values of the coefficients of influence of the empirical dependences of the transverse forces of the ballast on vertical loads for different fractions of crushed stone were determined. The presented laboratory and computer models make it possible to predict the state of the ballast prism during operation.

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