Stepanov M.A., Stepanov A.P. Sposob opredeleniya i otsenki defektov i vnutrennikh napryazhenii v protyazhennykh stal'nykh izdeliyakh s simmetrichnymi poperechnymi secheniyami [A method for determining and evaluating defects and internal stresses in extended steel products with symmetrical cross-sections]. Sovremennye tekhnologii. Sistemnyi analiz. Modelirovanie [Modern Technologies. System Analysis. Modeling], 2020, Vol. 66, No. 2, pp. 42–52. 10.26731/1813-9108.2020.2(66).42-52
The paper describes a method for determining and evaluating defects and internal stresses in extended steel products with symmetrical cross-sections, which are a large class of objects in industry and transport. The essence of the method is to create a symmetrical external magnetic field relative to the axis (axes) of symmetry of the geometric shape of the cross-section of the product made of a homogeneous ferromagnetic material, and to analyze the symmetry of the magnetic field created in this way. In this case, the magnetizing non-sinusoidal current must have a constant component when decomposing into a Fourier series. Then, the external magnetic field formed by the DC component and the current harmonics of the low frequencies will carry information about the central layers of the cross section and external magnetic field generated by the higher harmonic current, will be more to carry information about the surface layers of the cross-section, complementing the information obtained from the DC component and low frequency currents. Heterogeneity in the cross-sectional material makes the resistance of sections of cross sectional area to non-sinusoidal current non-uniform. This leads to a distortion of the source current waveform in this section. To control the symmetry breaking of the external magnetic field of cross-sections, sensors are installed that measure the induction at characteristic pairwise symmetrical points on the cross-section surface relative to the symmetry axis (axes) of the cross-section geometric figure. At the same time, the readings of pairwise symmetric cross-section sensors will differ when defects, structural changes or internal stresses are detected in the cross-section, both during stationary measurements and when the cross-section sensors move along the monitored product. As an example, we present a simulation of magnetic fields of cross-sections of a rail, as well as the results of an experiment with a sample of a rail with a defect extracted from the operating trackbed of an electrified railway. As a result of the experiment, the defect and internal local stresses in the rail sample are determined and evaluated based on the measurement of magnetic induction at pairwise symmetrical points on the surface of cross-sections on the monitored section of the rail sample. Initially, the sample was magnetized by non-sinusoidal traction current, then by a permanent magnet in order to create a symmetrical magnetic field relative to the geometric shape of the cross-section of the sample. In the first and second cases, sections with a defect and local internal stresses are determined.
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